Collaborations across the electronics & tech industries
Collaborations across the electronics & tech industries
In this episode of Global Electronics Hub Podcast, we interview with Ron Smith MBA, Director of Honeycomb Global UK. We discuss case studies of electronics companies collaborating with other industries such as pharmaceuticals and automotive, different forms of effective collaborations, ramifications of such collaborations for business growth, key areas of collaboration over the next 5-10 years, a checklist to identify the correct collaborator and quantifying the ROI of that relationship. Please note an edited transcript of this podcast follows.
"The way that we do it to quantify if a collaboration has worked, the key thing is, is it moving both parties in a good direction? It might be more quickly going down a particular path, or uncovering more paths and pathways to business, either way it's increasing the competitiveness for both companies. That's the key. You've got to be increasing the competitiveness for both companies, or all the companies involved in the collaboration." - Mr. Ron Smith, Director, Honeycomb Global Ltd. UK.
[00:00:00] Ranjana: Hi, good evening, this is Ranjana Pathi from Honeycomb Global for the podcast of The Global Electronics Hub. Today I have with me, my partner and also director of Honeycomb Global in the UK, Mr. Ron Smith, who has spent a substantial part of his career in the global electronics industry. And most of his work has had a strong focus on international business development and well, he claims to have visited 5,000 electronics companies.
[00:00:31] Hi, Ron, is that correct? And please share a little bit about your experience with 5,000 electronics company.
[00:00:39] Ron: Yes, you're quite right. It's somewhere around about 5,000. I've never actually physically counted them, but, it's gotta be somewhere sort of in that region. And yeah, my experience has been at all levels in all sizes of companies all over the world. And what I've learned over that time is how similar a lot of the electronics manufacturing companies are, what I've seen also, you know, sort of so many different scales and [00:01:00] ideas of how to innovate and how to compete in what is a very competitive market, obviously. And I think that the thing that fascinates me the most is how technology just keeps moving forward. You know, there's never a dull day. There's always something new coming along. There's always a new challenge or something exciting and shiny to go after. So, yeah, it's been an interesting career so far.
[00:01:22] Ranjana: So today we're speaking about collaborations across the electronics and tech industries. We want to keep this session fairly vast, yet informative. So we start with, you know, we want examples of collaborations in pharma and auto, which have inspired you maybe different types of collaborations and the ramifications on business, potential areas of collaboration in the electronic sector specifically say in the next five to 10 years, and then also a sort of checklist, for choosing the right collaborator and how we could quantify a particular collaboration. [00:02:00] So I want your insights on all of these topics and, you know, let's start with the different types of collaborations and a few examples if you will.
[00:02:10] Ron: So I learnt this in collaborations. I mean, one of the first ones that comes to mind in recent times, that has been world changing and has been a total inter-dependence between two companies is Tesla and Panasonic. EV batteries have developed at a massive pace in a large part as a direct result of this collaboration. Without Panasonic, Tesla could not have had the success it has had in developing a usable electric car. And without Tesla, Panasonic would not have had the platform to develop and scale up on the technologies it was developing. If this alliance hadn't come together, it's probable, that we would still be five years further away from usable electric cars. And they've totally shaken up the global world. Other things that come to mind, in electronics, Samsung and NCL, developing [00:03:00] comprehensive set of managed print services. So you've got a couple of kind of associated, but if you like both companies involved, different extents in the electronics industry, but they came together a while ago with different skills and approaches to develop a completely new service. Although famous collaborations that come to mind against Samsung and Apple. And who makes a lot of Apple's screens or used to make a lot of Apple screens with Samsung in a collaboration, which is always an interesting collaboration because on one hand we collaborated and, but worked as an Alliance very closely together. And on the other hand, a lot of people think it was probably more about PR than anything else. And they were continually challenging each other in court. So it was a very strange kind of settlement, but, you know, again, the results are amazing.
[00:03:47] If then sort of look in the automotive world. I mean, where are the biggest ones at the moment, is something called Ionity, which is collaboration between BMW, Ford, Daimler, Porsche ,Audi, VW brand generally. So [00:04:00] the development of high power charging networks for electric cars, which, at the moment, is probably the biggest thing that's holding back sales of electric cars and I'm sure they'll crack it fairly soon. Sticking with BMW, they're also working on collaborations with Intel, Magna, Fiat, Continental, on autonomous driving. Well, Continental, NVIDIA and Vyner are also working on something. I mean, you could then move on to say Astrazeneca for pharmaceuticals. They've announced their research collaborations with Mina therapeutics, with the aim of evaluating whether a small activating RNA, RNA molecules. Could be effective in treating metabolic diseases. Ameena says that the partnership will combine their expertise in the discovery and development of the RNA so the saRNAs with AZ's experience in development, breakthrough metabolic disease therapies, pharmaceutical is an area that collaboration has become so important because of the [00:05:00] cost of developing new drugs, the risk involved in developing new drugs.
[00:05:04] And then of course, aerospace. Many famous collaborations that go about years. Airbus is itself an Alliance. When you think of Airbus. I mean the Airbus business is really an Alliance of many companies across a number of countries, but in aerospace generally, or in aircraft development, more recently, the battle ground has been on the development of advanced materials, and processes. An example, Hexcel and Arkema collaborating on development of composite tapes. The Hexcel Arkema Alliance is said to be designed to harness Hexcel's experience and expertise to develop carbon fiber base ,tapes. So that kind of gives you quick thumbnail of collaborations, but other ones that I've seen on smaller scales is companies coming together to expand ranges.
[00:05:54] So one company wants to expand the range that they're are offering. Um, they rather than developing [00:06:00] their own products, they will do a collaboration with another company to bring more products to the market. Which works great for both of them because it means everybody gets more products in the market. One company gets access to a new market, and the other company gets more products per existing markets, works incredibly well. I hope that answers that.
[00:06:18] Ranjana: Yes, that leaves us in a very exciting space for you know, what's possible in the future.
[00:06:25] Ron: Well, I mean, the other thing to understand is the different kinds of collaborations, which again, is a fascinating area because people think of collaborations.
[00:06:33] Quite often, they have different ideas about what a collaboration is, and it can be anything from a really informal, you know, a couple of companies coming together and having conversations about how to develop products. All about board legal stuff. You know, I'm not talking about price fixing or anything like that. If, companies that are trying to develop new products in a similar kind of direction, why not believe that the capabilities of both and you see it across again, the automotive industry and electronics industry, quite a [00:07:00] lot with, you know, automotive manufacturers using each other, each of other's engines in the cars Ford using Fiat engines and all those kinds of things going on, but the kind of collaborations, it can be anything from a discussion to a full merger or takeover. Most collaborations start with a discussion and develop towards simple contractual agreements. The important thing to understand though, is that a collaboration or alliance is not the same as simply subcontracting or procurement of products or services. At the heart of it, for a collaboration or an alliance, it's a desire to work together long term and the will to make that happen in a way that both companies gain. I mean, of course there will be contracts created procurement style contracts, even. Well, that's more housekeeping administration. The key it's the ethos of wanting to create something together.
[00:07:50] And there are many alliances and collaborations that continue on a very informal basis, punctuated by a few contractual agreements. On the other hand. Joint ventures [00:08:00] to define what a joint venture is: you know, two companies working together in collaboration, they may remain completely separate companies, no contractual agreements, or could create a joint venture company, which is a third company. So you start with two companies, they create the third company. That's where there's some kind of equity going in and what have you, but a lot of joint venture collaborations, there's no equity involved. There's very little contractual requirements involved. It's just companies wanting to work together. And then it goes all the way through some mergers and acquisitions. And quite often you see a kind of trend of people start off informally. Then they'll start to get some contractual things in place, some kind of contracts outlining how they're going to work together. And over a few years, they may then build into developing their joint venture. One company might buy the other, or they might merge together.
[00:08:52] So there's a very, you know, great many different ways that this can be. So, uh, yeah, the main thing is everyone's working to try and [00:09:00] achieve something better than they can on their own.
[00:09:02] Yes, absolutely.
[00:09:03] Ranjana: So of course this has various elements and various facets to it. So it could be on the technology front. It could be on, say someone's trying to acquire a new market, a market positioning.
[00:09:17] So I want to understand more from you what the ramifications could be on business growth. So what it means in terms of if someone were to do cost benefit analysis, with the perspective for making decisions for the business expansion, What are the ramifications of such collaborations?
[00:09:34] Ron: Okay, well, I'll give you two things.
[00:09:35] One I'll, talk about the spirit of it, of collaborations and the ramifications. And then I'll move on to a few hard facts as well. One particular piece of research that gives an outline, which we'll also make available on the website, but the ramifications, well, why collaborate? The key is get it right and it accelerates company growth and performance. Collaborations [00:10:00] inspire all parties, when they are done properly. We can help grow your network. It's educational. You learn a lot more. You can save money, you can solve more problems. There are hard financial reasons, but also many less obvious things. Just simply finding different perspectives to the same market.
[00:10:16] Now, in my career, I've seen companies who've started to collaborate who've been pretty much competitors and, you know,one of the terms that's being used increasingly in strategic marketing these days is coopetition. Which is cooperating and collaborating with competitors. I remember seeing a few years ago, one that really just sticks in my mind was two companies involved in the lighting industry. And it was kind of in the early days of LED lighting. Both had been in the market, producing lighting, ballasts, the old style ballasts for HID lighting, fluorescent lighting and what have you. They've both been in that market for many years and there were competitors and they started to talk together and they [00:11:00] started to realize that they had completely different angles and understandings of the market, even though they were both in the same market and what it led to was the joint development, of some of the early electronic ballasts for LED lighting and making them more compact, lower costs, more features. And it was because the two of them came together and saw things from different angles on how the market works and how it should go together and what the customers actually needed.
[00:11:25] So it gives different perspectives on problems. You learn new techniques that might never have occurred to you. Forms a wider network of contacts as I have said. Well, you know, answer the hard facts if you want real proof, the research conducted by Warwick Business School in 2015, the proven benefits were improved business and operational performance, increased business winning and enhanced risk management, greater innovation and multimillion pound efficiencies. Increased client confidence and repeat business, and a lot more new product development. There were, as with all great [00:12:00] ideas, some downsides as well, you know, let's not only give the perfect picture of this. Some of the findings from Warwick was, need to be careful not to grow too much in the interdependency between companies when they collaborate. Because what they found is that that can really upset the overall power balance. Some complexities in managing intercompany relationships also occur. They can come by building commitments and developing more collaborative business models and starting off in the right way, which is essential, really is where we come in.
[00:12:28] So it's building trust. It's knowing where the boundaries are of how interdependent you want to become. It's knowing how to manage the intercompany relationships, at all levels. There's no point, you know, the two CEOs of the company being great mates and going out to the golf course together or whatever it is they do.
[00:12:44] If, at lower levels, people are not collaborating and talking together. So it's getting that kind of relationship going across the business.
[00:12:52] Ranjana: Great. Okay. So let's come back towards the electronics industry. What are the potential areas of collaboration, [00:13:00] which you envision will happen in the next five to 10 years?
[00:13:04] Ron: That's always a tough one. Now the thing is the speed of change is so fast.
[00:13:09] There's two ways I look at this: one is looking at what is already happening, which sounds like a bit of a cop-out, but, you know, it's got so far to go yet, but it will make sense. You know, some of the future trends. But on one level, particularly the realms of IOT and big data analytics and just the way that everything is now linked into data. Think about how many apps you see dominate every piece of tech, you know, you can't even switch your boiler on and off in the house now, withoutit going through an app. So whether it's a fitness tracker on your arm or managing the maintenance schedule for machines using IOT sensors, big data analytics is driving it on the machine sensors. A lot of the big data and throwing a bit of artificial intelligence there as well. What that's doing is it's looking at, not when a part is worn out, but it's looking for the trends of when it might wear out. [00:14:00] Not just based on a simple algorithm of this is how many rotations a bearing has done, but also the kind of use it has gone through it, the kind of forces that are on it.
[00:14:09] And that's only of any use of all that sensing if the data can be analyzed. So a lot of big data analytics working with IOT, working with apps and all of these are separate companies. It's rare to get one company that can make the hardware, make the app, do all the big data analytics. It's probably not even desirable to try and do that in one company because they're quite specialist areas.
[00:14:31] And you know, if you try and make a company too generalized, you start to lose focus on where the core strategy is. You start to go away from the core capabilities and spend more time trying to develop an app than actually making hardware. Which brings to mind a failure of the past, which is, if you look at what happened to Nokia, they went down there.
[00:14:51] Nokia brilliant hardware manufacturer made some of the most robust, best phones for the day that could be made. And then [00:15:00] instead of embracing other people's software or using third parties to develop software and like a lot of other people were doing with Android and what have you, Nokia's downfall was they tried to develop their own software platform for smart phones. And they couldn't do it. They wasted an awful lot of money. You know, damaged the company, doing it.
[00:15:18] The other things that are coming up at the moment I'm seeing is miniaturization as always in electronics. There's always miniaturization going on anyway, but increasingly repurposing in the future trends, recognizing products and technologies are originally designed for one thing that might have other uses, like MEMS technology, MEMS sensors as well. It starts adding some, AI, what they call on the edge AI actually embedded into the device. And the result is looking like it will be some kind of neuromorphic computing, emulating the neural structure, the human brain creating a perceptional elements of the center.
[00:15:52] So it's going way beyond just being a pure sensor and it's going way beyond what MEMS technology was originally intended to do. Even [00:16:00] within the MEMS, generating the power for the AI technology comes from the actual activation within the MEMS anyway, the mechanical movements in the MEMS. So it's that kind of miniaturization,, consolidation. These are all kind of, you know, trends going forward. But to be quite honest, they're not even that new for trends. Um I would say the electronics that what we see over the years is over the generations is what tends to happen is the same thing just keeps going, but getting smaller and smaller and more and more capability put into a smaller space and bringing things together.
[00:16:32] So what are the ramifications for, hardware and software manufacturers? It means being able to bring together lots and lots of different disciplines. And to do that on your own as your own company, it is becoming increasingly difficult, you have to find the expert competence, the people who live, breathe, and eat, you know, that the particular industry they're working in.
[00:16:53] But trying to develop everything yourself, you can very quickly end up in this world where the speed of innovation with redundant capabilities, [00:17:00] we spend a fortune on getting all the software engineers in and then the technology moves on again and you've got a whole bank of software engineers, equipment for those software engineers that actually isn't needed anymore.
[00:17:11] So collaborations, alliances is definitely the way to go.
[00:17:15] Ranjana: Okay. So another area most definitely will be medical electronics. What are your thoughts on that?
[00:17:21] Ron: Well I think the key thing is with again, medical electronics, it's the, you know, throw bigdata back in there, it's kind of more of the same in a lot of ways, just applied into a slightly different market. But again, you know, if you're talking collaboration, you need collaborations for medical electronics. You need collaborations with obviously medical people, doctors and scientists, developing new ways and new ideas. A lot of new surgical techniques, most new surgical techniques have developed by, you know, cutting edge surgeons, the ones who were at the height of their game.
[00:17:51] And then where the electronic side comes in. You know, a surgeon is not usually particularly good at electronics and electronics people are not particularly good at surgery. [00:18:00] I generally find so, you know, these people got to collaborate, but going beyond that, I would say you might have the surgeon there who is developing ideas. That's got a new method of doing things. But wants to commercialize it and bring it to the market for wider use and you'll need electronics engineers you'll need, you know, advanced materials, scientists and engineers coming together on that. You'll then need, again, everything comes back to big data and reporting back and remote working of whatever it is that the two devices are actually doing. So you need the big data analytics going on there, again, to look at trends and how things have gone together. So, yeah, medical devices is, you know, it's an area that's just going to increase and increase in terms of electronic content.
[00:18:45] I guess, any obvious in the electronics industry, one of the things we find fascinating is you could pick any industry ask the same question and get the same answer that electronics has just been to increase and increase and increase in it. But, you know, going back to medical, one of the big areas is going to send things like [00:19:00] already started in a lot of ways, but home diagnostics, simple home diagnostics kits, cheaper, quicker ways of diagnosing ailments and finding the right treatments. Yeah, huge part of the industry.
[00:19:14] Ranjana: So obviously this would be maybe three partners collaborating at the minimum right? So someone from the pharmaceuticals and the medical fields, and then someone from the IT services as well as there would be hardware experts on board. So in your perspective, do you think there should be, you know, a rough checklist for choosing the right collaborators?
[00:19:38] Ron: Kind of, I mean, the way that we do it to quantify if a collaboration has worked. The key thing is, is it moving both parties in a good direction? I'm careful with my words here. When I say in a good direction, one of the things I've seen with collaborations is they start off as one thing and quite often morph into something completely different. It's almost like an organic process. You start off with one project and it's through doing maybe one bit of [00:20:00] collaboration that you start to find the similarities of what it is that you actually enjoy about working with each other, what works well, what doesn't, and it starts to fire their imagination onto other things.
[00:20:10] So it's gotta to be moving in the right direction. It might be more quickly going down a particular path or uncovering more paths and pathways to business. Either way, it's increasing the competitiveness for both companies. That's the key. You've got to be increasing the competitiveness for both companies, all the companies involved in the collaboration.
[00:20:28] So simplest examples, you know, opening up a new market there's geographical or industry based rather than trying to fill your own way in to set up distribution systems, work out who the competitors are, what the clients want, where the price points are. Very simply find a company already in the market who are looking for a range extension are looking for more products to sell into their own market, and that will benefit their own presence in the market as well as helping you get your products into the market, both companies achieve what they want. But this could equally apply to someone with a piece of under utilized equipment or a niche [00:21:00] technology that's potential to be used in all the markets they know very little about. Think of automotive electronics manufacturer wanting to go into medical devices. Far easier to partner with someone who already understands the market, the distribution channels, the approvals, the quality standardsthan to try and work it out for yourself.
[00:21:16] So some will say that the downside is you may not become a major force in the market in your own rights. That's where that kind of market entry books, accounts of this argument. If you learn how to build those collaborations, you can repeat the same kind of idea, time and time again, into different markets with different companies, which makes you more resilient and widening the scope.
[00:21:38] But in terms of the checklist. A few of the things I would really point towards: that's the number one thing is finding companies who have got some kind of mutually beneficial reason for working together. Obvious. If there isn't a mutually beneficial reason, then why come together? There's no point.
[00:21:55] The second thing I would always talk about the size of the [00:22:00] companies as well, finding the right size of company to go with the right size of company. Now that doesn't always mean two companies of the same size. In fact, it rarely means two companies of the same size. Usually you'll find that this one company wants one thing out of the relationship and other company wants another. Let's go with say fairly young companies, entrepreneurial companies, who've got loads of great ideas. Great technologies, that are really sort of still got that entrepreneurial drive and motivation. They don't really want to partner with another company that are the same. They want to partner with a company who's got the resources and the capabilities to really take their products to the market properly and scale it up on the big scale. Whereas the bigger company is looking for the smaller entrepreneurial scale type companies, who've got more of that drive, ambition, and new ways of doing things. Sometimes if it's purely strategic reasons for opening up new terrorists, then yes, you might be looking for similar sized companies. So the company size is important.
[00:22:56] The most important thing to me though, is the culture. [00:23:00] What I've seen with company cultures, you know, I'm talking about business cultures here. I'm not talking about international cultures where obviously there is a bit to be taken into account there. But overall, the business culture between two companies. The companies that tend to work well are the ones who can build trust and the companies who can build trust, are the ones usually who have a similar culture. Even by talking of trust, you know, there's varying scales of trust; two very cynical companies can come together and work very well together because their culture is that they're both kind of, a little bit standoffish, perhaps. They're both concerned about protecting their IP quite vigorously. So it means that both companies understand each other and they're talking. And they start to realize that where the boundaries need to be set and they're all talking the same language. So finding companies that have got a culture that it doesn't have to be a matching culture, but cultures that can work together, that is the absolute key. Because, if the cultures can't work together, you cannot build trust because people don't [00:24:00] really understand where each other are coming from. They'll have different worldviews. So getting that cultural element and getting the trust and starting off in the right way, right from the start is the key to good collaborations.
[00:24:12] So to summarize it, if both companies have got some kind of shared motivation. They've got similar cultures, and the size of the company of the two companies coming together is desirable for each which, you know, small company might want a big company, big company might want a small company. It might be two small companies or two big companies for that coming together. Some kind of common ground of understanding and obviously something to offer each other, some kind of synergies that will work together.
[00:24:40] And, you know, the fascinating thing to me is it's surprising how many of the good collaborations are between people who consider themselves to be competitors. And then they start to take a different worldview on coopetition rather than competition and realize that by working together, they can actually achieve more.
[00:24:58] So, yeah, that's really the kind of [00:25:00] process that we go through when we're talking to companies in the hub. When we're talking to companies who wants to collaborate, our starting point is what is it that you're trying to do? What territory are you trying to do it in? What capabilities do you feel that you're lacking that you would need? And then also taking a little bit of time to understand the culture. Is it an open culture? Is it more of a closed culture? What kind of size company they're looking for? And then what we can do is either find in our, in our electronics hub the right kind of company and and do a bit of match-making there, or, if we can't find the right company in electronics, we will go out and find it.You know, depending on the level of engagement you have with us. We will go out and hunt for those companies and find those companies. And we'll start the initial conversations to start to build the trust straight away. So you don't, you don't have to talk directly to each other from the start. It will start to build the conversations to make sure that the understanding is aligned before the first direct conversation even, and that we find hugely powerful. Getting those expectations [00:26:00] set from the start. Treat us as a third party, you know, totally independent third party. I kind of, I guess, acts as a kind of mediator to begin with before you all come together.
[00:26:12] Ranjana: That's fantastic. I mean, and I couldn't agree with you more also given the nature of our business and how we started and formed as a collaboration as well in the UK, as well as with Honeycomb Global in the UK and in India.
[00:26:26] Ron: Yeah, I think it just to take that story a bit further, I mean, how Honeycomb came about altogether was I had a company that worked with another company. Well, two of the companies in collaboration, on one project, that happened to be in India.
[00:26:41] We all worked so well together and got on so well together that we started to look at all the projects and decided it would be a great idea to actually form a joint venture company. So we kind of formalized our alliance in collaboration and move forward another couple of years from there. We needed to establish more [00:27:00] of a footprint in India for various reasons. And that's when we met with you Ranjana and your organization. And we became, another joint venture partnership in India as well. So our whole company development has been through collaborations and partnerships.
[00:27:13] Ranjana: But well, and also one of our biggest projects till date for the electronics hub, the electronics cluster is also a collaboration with another firm.
[00:27:22] Ron: Exactly.
[00:27:23] Yeah. Yeah. Because how that came about is there was an organization who wanted to develop a hundred acre electronics park tech park, finding a company who could do the design of it, work out the strategy, work out the marketing. It was just virtually impossible to do. So we came together and we formed a collaboration with another company who looked after the architectural side and the actual real estate development side. And we looked after the strategy and the marketing and bringing the electronics companies in. Yeah, that's an ongoing project. It's probably got another few years to run actually, and it's working well.
[00:27:59] Ranjana: So I [00:28:00] think it's safe to say we eat, breathe, you know, speak collaboration.
[00:28:04] Ron: Absolutely. And I'll go back to those 5,000 companies, 5,000 plus, and I'll say 5,000 plus or minus you know, five or 600. I said, and I've never actually counted them properly. But, yeah, this has been a passion of mine, this collaboration. Because I saw so many companies with so many good ideas that just didn't quite have the final piece of the jigsaw and they're ok, were making a bit of a living out of it. They were doing quite well, but could have done so much better if they had just been prepared to start looking at collaborating. You know, back in those days while I was working for other organizations, it wasn't really part of my remit to bring the companies together. It wasn't part of what we did. But, you know, I did my best to put a few together. The results were interesting. So yeah, we do eat, sleep and breathe it. Two of our other key directors in the UK from the more technical side, I'm more commercial, you know, in the advanced technologies that they come from, collaboration is everything. Absolutely everything. It's all collaboration in those areas.
[00:29:00] So if you look at any really successful company, any really successful technology, you will find it very, very difficult to find any that haven't really grown up through immense amounts of collaboration with lots of other partners. So the power of that is immense.
[00:29:15] Our mission is to bring that to more people in the electronics industry.
[00:29:18] Ranjana: Absolutely. Well, we've come to an end of the session. Thank you for your time, Ron. And I look forward to speaking to you on the next one.
[00:29:27] Ron: Excellent. Thank you very much. It's been a pleasure!
Key Takeaway Points
Ron has visited over 5000 electronics companies during the course of his career
Prominent collaborations that have moved the electronics industry forward
Tesla and Panasonic for EV batteries
Samsung and NCL developing comprehensive set of management services
Samsung and Apple, for Apple's screens
BMW, Ford, Daimler, Porsche, Audi, VW brand generally, for something called Ionity, which is high
power charging network for electric cars
There are many collaborations across the aerospace industry too, especially with advanced materials and processes, eg. Hexcel and Alcheema developing on composite tapes
There are different kinds of collaborations – from informal, contractual agreements, to JVs, Mergers and Acquisitions
Potential areas of collaboration which we envision will happen across the electronics sector, in the next 5-10 years.
Quantifying a particular collaboration and how we would quantify it is if a said collaboration is moving in the right direction, ie. making both companies more competitive.